Effect of Five Different Maturation Stages on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Syrian Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel Essential Oil
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Keywords

Citrus aurantium L.; Ripening stages; Hydro-distillation; Essential Oils; Antioxidant activity; Antibacterial activity.

How to Cite

Alnemer*, W. ., Daghestani, M. ., Karabet, F. ., & Abo Chameh , G. (2023). Effect of Five Different Maturation Stages on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Syrian Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel Essential Oil. Jordan Journal of Chemistry (JJC), 18(2), 87–93. Retrieved from https://jjc.yu.edu.jo/index.php/jjc/article/view/646

Abstract

For the first time, the composition of Essential Oils (EOs) from Syrian Citrus aurantium L. peel and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was studied over five different stages of ripening; (R1: Sep 2021, green; R2: Oct, Yellowish-green; R3: Nov, Greenish-yellow; R4: Dec, Yellow; R5: Jan 2022, orange). EOs were extracted by a hydro-distillation method using the Clevenger apparatus, and their components were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of EOs were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and the dilution method, respectively. The results showed that the highest EO yield (1.68 ± 0.05 mL/100 g peel) was achieved during the fruit ripe stage R5. However, the maturation stage has no significant effect on the limonene proportion (98.5%), which is the most abundant compound in Syrian C. aurantium peels EO. Moreover, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition efficacy for EOs was the highest in the R1 stage and had an IC50 value of 83.48 ± 0.01 mg/mL. EO from the R1 stage showed the best values of minimum inhibitory concentration MIC (0.0035 ± 0.0011 and 0.0900 ± 0.0023 nL/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, suggesting the importance of using these EOs as natural preservatives in food products.

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