Removal of Pb(II), Zn(II), Sn(II) and Cu(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Linear Alternating Poly(4,4'-biphenol oxalate) Oligomer




4,4′-biphenol oxalate, Oxalyl chloride, Uptake, Heavy metals, Column, desorption.

How to Cite

Fawwaz, F., Sweileh, B., Massad , R., & Aljamal, E. (2021). Removal of Pb(II), Zn(II), Sn(II) and Cu(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Linear Alternating Poly(4,4’-biphenol oxalate) Oligomer. Jordan Journal of Chemistry (JJC), 15(2), 73-85. (Original work published August 8, 2020)


Poly(4,4′-biphenol oxalate) oligomer was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis XRD and thermal analysis. The capability of the oligomer to take away Pb(II), Zn(II), Sn(II) and Cu(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions was considered by the known batch and column techniques in terms of concentration, pH value, contact time and temperature. The results indicated that a high initial rate of metal-ion uptake by the oligomer was observed throughout the first 30 minutes, which enlarged slightly amid rising the pH value and then reached its greatest value at pH=5.00 for Pb(II) and Zn(II), pH=4.00 for Cu(II) and pH=6.00 for Sn(II). The oligomer exhibited a high metal-ion uptake capacity to Pb(II) and Zn(II), but a little metal-ion uptake capacity to Cu(II) and Sn(II). Linearized forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption isotherms were used to investigate the experimental equilibrium concentration data of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Sn(II). ΔG values demonstrated that the adsorption process of these metal ions on the oligomer is favored while the ΔH values indicated that this process is endothermic. On the other hand, the entropy of the process is positive. In addition to batch experiments, column experiments were performed, where the metal ions were efficiently recovered by treatment of the metal-loaded oligomer with 1.0 M HNO3, 1.0 M HCl and 0.5 M EDTA. The best results were obtained with 1.0 M HNO3 solution.